You just keep on trying till you run out of cake.
I work on Internet measurement and analysis to better understand how this giant system works that connects us all.

Research Topics

In very broad terms I am interested in network systems, on both small and large scales. I also require practical problems to solve since I am not much of a theoretician.

I am currently working on evaluating the differences between data and control paths on the Internet. While it is expected that traffic is routed according to the information announced via the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), in practice, the actual path taken might deviate. Identifying where these differences occur helps our understanding of the Internet as a global system.

Another topic of interest are video streaming systems, in particular virtual reality video streaming.


I studied computer science at Saarland University in Saarbrücken (Germany). I completed my in 2018 after writing my thesis at Björn Brandenburg's Real-Time Systems Group at the Max Planck Institute for Software Systems . For my master's thesis I looked at how to improve video streaming performance by dropping parts of the video. This work was finished in 2020 at Anja Feldmann's Internet Architecture Group at the Max Planck Institute for Informatics . I have continued working as a research assistant at MPII before joining IIJ-II in 2021.

Professional Activities

Teaching assistant:


  • Data Networks - Exercise sheet correction and oral exam task preparation / note taking (MPI-INF & Saarland University, 2020)
  • Information Systems (Saarland University, 2015, 2017)


Workshop and Work-in-Progress Publications

Arpan Gujarati, Malte Appel, and Björn B. Brandenburg, “Work-in-Progress: Achal: Building Highly Reliable Networked Control Systems”, Proceedings of the 15th ACM International Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT 2019), October 2019.

Malte Appel, Arpan Gujarati, and Björn B. Brandenburg, “A Byzantine Fault-Tolerant Key-Value Store for Safety-Critical Distributed Real-Time Systems”, Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Security and Dependability of Critical Embedded Real-Time Systems (CERTS 2017), December 2017.


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